You might be interested in reviewing what is now available at the ESRI Resource Centers Map Template Gallery.
As described in this blog post on the Mapping Center blog, these templates are not simply an MXT as you might expect. These templates are ZIP files that include an example map (.MXD) so you can see how a map was made, some sample data so you can see the structure of the data, and documentation as well so that all levels of GIS users will know where to start and what tasks are needed. Some of the templates will also include things like GP tools/models or maybe an example web app and code.
Take a look – currently I am seeing templates for Topo at varying scales, Geologic, Street Map, and Reference Map. Hopefully we will see all of you out there in the Community begin to add your template examples as well!